COP21: more than expected, short of what’s needed

After over 20 years of climate talks, 195 countries reached a “universal, fair, dynamic and binding agreement” to “save the planet” by keeping global average temperature rise well below 2 degrees. The mood was euphoric and some delegates were in tears after the three sleepless nights that concluded ParisClimat2015. Having followed the preparations of this global forum, I was impressed by the efforts of the city of Paris, the French authorities and particularly by the personal engagement of the French President for an ambitious and historic outcome.

1.5 degrees target

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1.5 degrees target

I am proud that Canada, after a decade of obstruction and denial under the Harper administration, has come out in favor of a 1.5 degree objective under the leadership of newly-elected Justin Trudeau. Staying “well below 2 degrees” is now the stated target of the world community and Canada is back as a constructive force on the world scene. This leadership will be needed to if we are to turn this lofty objective into something meaningful in terms of climate action.

“Aspirational” Objective

The 1.5 degree goal reflects calls of small island states, climate scientists and civil society but the new ambitions do not yet translate into commensurate actions that would even have a remote chance of meeting the original so-called “safe” target of 2 degrees, let alone 1.5 – which would require much faster reductions in green-house-gases and methods of taking back some of the carbon that has already been emitted.

Growing science and reality gap 

Scientists have been warning that there is a time lag between the moment when carbon is released and the resulting temperature increase. This means that on top of the 0.9 degrees of warming that we are already experiencing, there is an extra 0.6 degrees that is already pre-programmed for the future – Dr. Thomas Frölicher, researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology has produced some interesting work in this area. For these reasons, in time we will reach the 1.5 degree target and beyond as we continue to burn carbon.

On track for 3 degrees and more

Commitments by member states for COP21 put us on the 3 degree or more path. Well above the 1.5 degree goal. It is therefore urgent to transform this new target into meaningful policy, to change business models and make sure that we all change our behaviors – something that is far from achieved and which implies much deeper emission cuts then was is currently planned.

Timing is critical

Delegates and politicians still think that climate change is a slow, gradual and linear process. This is not supported by science. In fact, the process is not-linear and there is now a real risk of hitting tipping points that could accelerate climate disruptions with catastrophic consequences. This is why the 2020 entry into force and the 5-year reviews that would start in 2025 are disappointing.

Common but differentiated responsibilities

All countries will have to participate in the carbon reductions but rich countries must help to finance this transition in the developing world by contributing a minimum of $100 billion per year starting in 2020 – a figure that will be revised upwards in 2025. The good news is that new powerhouses like China and South Korea will contribute to this effort. It is also encouraging that countries like India will adopt a low-carbon path for their development, something that was far from achieved just a few days ago.

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Wind Energy Tree at COP21 in Paris

The end of the fossil fuel era

One message from the COP is  that the good days of the fossil fuel era are behind us. Fossil fuel subsidies should be phased-out and we will move towards a price on carbon to speed up the transition to a clean energy economy.

Just the beginning

As Chinese President Xi Jinping said at the opening of COP21 on November 30th, this agreement is just the beginning of a process, echoing warnings from British Climate Ambassador, Sir David King, that carbon reduction targets must be reviewed regularly to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon future. From where we stand today and despite decades of work, it sure seems that we are still at ground zero.

The Declaration of Humankind at ParisClimat2015

Given the threat to humanity from climate change, French President Francois Hollande mandated former environmental minister Corinne Lepage with developing a Declaration of Rights and Obligations of Humankind to build-on and complement the 1948 Paris Declaration of Human Rights.

For mankind to organize its survival, peace and dignity, civil society must carry the Declaration and become a catalyst for support across sectors and with the wider public for its adoption by the United Nations General Assembly in 2016.

On December 9, from 9 to 11am at the COP21 French Pavilion in Le Bourget, the french presidency will be holding a side-event hosted by Corinne Lepage and with Scott Teare (Secretary-General of the World Scout Movement), Olivier De Schutter (IPES Food), Yolanda Kakabadse Navaro (WWF international) and other guests to present the initiative, its importance and the way forward.

UNFCCC badge required for entry. 

Additional Information:

Declaration LINK

Background LINK

Huffington Post Article LINK

The full project team includes: Ahmed ALAMI, Marie-Odile BERTELLA-GEOFFROY, Valérie CABANES, Francois DAMERVAL, Hubert DELZANGLES, Emilie GAILLARD, Christian HUGLO, Nicolas IMBERT, Adam KONIUSZEWSKI, Jean-Marc LAVIEILLE, Catherine LE BRIS, Bettina LAVILLE, Jérémy RIFKIN and Mathieu WEMAERE. 

 

 

Searching for Endurance – Part 2

Part 2 of In Search for Endurance at COP21

Chamonix-based glaciologist Luc Moreau kindly agreed to speak after the screening of Luc Hardy’s “In Pursuit of Endurance” at the Rochexpo Naturelia fair in La-Roche-sur-Foron near Geneva. Chamonix, home to la “Mer de Glace” (sea of ice), the largest glacier in France and the winter vacation destination of choice for nature lovers, is at the forefront of climate change – warming 2 to 3 times faster then the global average.

Passionate about defending his playground, Luc made a provocative plea for action and I hereby summarize his most interesting perspective:

When the stewardess on an airplane explains how to use the oxygen mask she first says you should put yours first and only then that of your child. 

YES, let’s be selfish and we can then also save our children, give them fresh air and a climate they can live in!! and also then save others… If we don’t do it for ourselves then our children are doomed anyway. That is the only way forward. Selfishness!

We are so smart, all this science and knowledge and the only way we can find to save this environment that gives us life, air to breathe and water to drink is to be selfish. Only our selfishness can save us because that is the only thing we are really good at. We know how to do it, let’s be selfish now and let’s do it together…. and future generations will also benefit!!

Why slowly destroy the environment that we live? wildlife, plants, oceans, biodiversity, air, water… We can reverse this destruction if each and everyone does something and then a little something more. Carpooling, cycling, reducing and sorting waste, push for better regulation that taxes what destroy and supports what restores… We blame China? But China produced all the products that we love so much…

We cannot fix everything but we must show some direction, we must show that we care. Even if we sometimes make mistakes, we must change course, focus on what works and move forward. Just like in Aikido we do not try to counter evil, we deflect it and reverse this force to turn it into a positive.

So let’s be selfish together!! We have caused a global problem and we must therefore unite our forces globally to fix it together. Create a political party with all parties involved! Without labels but with all the smart people, their experience, philosophers and humanists, economists and financiers and why not a few community organizers with the spirit to do well for everyone!

Ernest Shackelton, if he were alive today, would give this leadership to steer humanity on the path to sustainability because he was a real leader – he was a real captain!

So, Luc (Moreau), who are you to give advice? 

What have I done? not much, carpooling, biking, public transport… it’s nothing! a drop in the ocean. But the ocean is made of individual drops!! And if we all do this then we will soon breathe more easily…

We are at our last crossroad, our last chance to change course. Let the spirit of Shackleton inspire our most selfish instincts to save ourselves …and our children too.

By Luc Moreau

 

Building Retrofits for Economic Stability and Energy Security

The 25th edition of the Krynica Economic Forum (Poland), the “little Davos of CEE”, took place a few weeks ago. After the opening with the Polish, Croatian and Macedonian Presidents on building a Resilient Europe, I took part in a panel organized by “The European Alliance of Companies for Energy Efficiency in Buildings” (EuroACE) on the economics and energy security aspects of renovating European buildings. A most timely topic as most buildings are energy colanders, and hence account for 40% of energy used in the EU – where more then half the energy is imported at a cost of €400+ billion.

Adrian Joyce. Archives of the Economic Forum, Krynica, Poland.

EuroACE’s Adrian Joyce reminded us that over 75% of European buildings have a very low performance level, and are a major source of energy waste and economic instability given Europe’s reliance on foreign energy. Yamina Saheb, from the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, pointed to the economic opportunity for growth, job creation and side benefits like better air quality, health and productivity, key elements for prosperity and wellbeing in a sector that contributes 7% of EU GDP and 12 million direct jobs, adding that an ambitious renovation programme could create another 5 million jobs by 2030.

Oyvind Aarvig, from the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation, stressed the need to renovate existing buildings given that 80% of the buildings in 2050 have already been built. He raised the challenge of urban sprawl and renovating is not enough; we must also increased building density intelligently to create sustainable communities where people want to live. Andre Delpont, from the Bordeaux-Euratlantique Public Planning Authority, concurred that energy efficiency coupled with densification in large-scale urban regeneration projects is key to attracting investors.

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Archives of the Economic Forum, Krynica, Poland.

The city of Krakow, one of Europe’s most polluted cities because of coal burning, is opting for large-scale energy retrofits aiming to improve efficiency by 50% and co-financing its €500 million program through European Structural Funds. For Witold Smialek, Advisor to the Mayor of Krakow, the biggest obstacle is inability of owners and tenants to contribute their small contribution to the project and that is slowing down progress but in the end, he feels this can be resolved. Over 80% of Polish buildings have more than 25 years and are in need of renovation according to Oliver Rapf, Executive Director of the BPIE, meaning that the economic and social potential in renovating the building stock in the country is enormous. He commended the ambitious works in Krakow as an exemplary project that other Polish cities should replicate.

I commented that appropriate building technologies, including insulation, windows and lighting, can significantly reduce energy requirements and thereby costs, while boosting energy security in Poland and Europe. Replacing the 6,500 windows in New York’s Empire State building with energy efficient windows was one of the key elements that helped reduce energy consumption by 43% and saved $4.4 million annually with a payback of 3 years. The potential for the renovation of buildings, both in Poland and in the world is enormous.

Energy Utility Resistance

Attila Nyikos, from the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, warned that reduced energy consumption meant lower revenues for energy utilities, as they must amortize massive fixed costs on a lower sales volume leading to higher energy rates for consumers, adding that occupants suffer while buildings undergo renovation works. He gave examples where owners refused free renovations because they wanted to avoid the inconvenience.

Takeaways:

  • When renovating a district, densification is key to attracting investors
  • Selecting the right timing for an energy retrofit and implementing integrated solutions is crucial to improve ROI
  • Multiple benefits can be important drivers (air quality, etc.) an inspire ambitious projects
  • Mixing local and EU funds is an effective answer to lack of upfront financing
  • To release the significant potential tied up in the existing building stock in Poland (and in the EU!) t is time to act. We need to start the work now (with proper planning), without delay!

Another important consideration is the need to align the interests of all parties involved. It is obvious that energy utilities will not promote effective energy efficiency programs if their profits depend on their volume of sales. Similar dilemmas exist between owners of building and tenants – owners will invest in measures to reduce energy bills if they see a real benefit for themselves. Regulatory measures (decoupling) can overcome such problems and are increasingly being deployed in America where utilities share part of the savings they generate for their customers. This sounds like a good starting for policy makers.

The Universal Declaration of the Rights of Humankind

The report for a “Universal Declaration of the rights of humankind” was delivered last Friday by French ex-Minister of the Environment, Corinne Lepage and her team at the Elysée in Paris. The project originated from a request by the President to build on the human rights declarations and “laying the rights humankind, that is to say, the right of all people on Earth to live in a world whose future is not compromised by the irresponsibility of the present generation”, Francois Hollande, October 2014.

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Stemming from the 1789 Declaration of Human Rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Paris 1948), and existing agreements and statements on development, the environment and future generations, the statement includes four principles:

  1. intergenerational solidarity
  2. dignity of humankind
  3. the continued existence of humankind,
  4. the non-discrimination on grounds of membership to a generation

“How can we guarantee to future generations the right to live in dignity and in a clean and safe environment?” said Valérie Cabanes, international lawyer specializing in human rights. Adding that “the consequences of our consumption patterns and production choices have become a threat to peace and human security”.

IMG_1616“Civil society from around the world must now mobilize and carry the message of the declaration so that it is widely shared and endorsed ahead of the December Climate Conference in Paris. This process is underway and the response so far is just amazing”, commented Corinne Lepage.

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Next steps

  • special announcement in Geneva on October 6
  • a broad consultation on the declaration
  • a side event on the subject will be held during the COP21

The objective being the adoption of a statement on the Declaration by the United Nations General Assembly in 2016. Given that this is a statement and not a binding document, it should be easier for member states to accept.

Project Team

The team that prepared the declaration and joined Corinne Lepage to deliver the report includes: Ahmed Alami, Marie-Odile Bertella-Geoffroy, Valérie Cabanes, Francois Damerval, Hubert Delzangles, Emilie Gaillard, Christian Huglo, Adam Koniuszewski, Jean-Marc Laveille, Catherine Le Bris, Bettina Laville and Mathieu Wemere.

IMG_1620Related Links

Elysée Release Link

Valérie Cabanes Article

MetroNews Article (French)

Silence of the Bees

Picture credit: http://hdw.eweb4.com

Picture credit: http://hdw.eweb4.com

By Margo and Adam Koniuszewski

Over 40% of what we find in our plates including many fruits, nuts and vegetables, results from the pollination process. These “services”, mainly by bees but also butterflies, birds, bats and flies add over $215 billion annually to the global economy – some seven times the revenues of a multinational giant like Coca-Cola. Bees, including commercially managed bees, provide the bulk of this value through pollination while the honey, propolis, royal jelly and wax they produce represents only a small fraction. But the role of bees extends well beyond the economic. Ancient civilizations recognized and celebrated bees and their role in spreading the genetic material of thousands of plants. Honey was revered across the ancient world as a regenerative and mystical substance and the food of the gods in Mayan culture. In the Garden of Eden it is said that honey dripped from trees like rainwater and as far back as 5,000 B.C., “King Menes”, founder of the First Dynasty of Egyptian Kings was called the “Beekeeper”.

Industrial Agriculture

Today, industrial agriculture focuses on the utilitarian role of bees to pollinate vast monocultures. Honeybees are shipped when and where needed. The California almond is a case in point. 800,000 acres with 90 million almond trees stretching for more then 600 kilometers provide over 80% of the global almond production. With pollen available only in February, bees would starve in this environment. They must therefore be trucked-in from across the country for the job. A major logistical effort for some 5,000 trucks to bring 1.6 million beehives. This scale of trucking bees around is not without danger – accidents are common. Just last week, North of Seattle, a truck carrying over 20 million bees for blueberry pollination overturned on the highway, spilling 458 beehives that firefighters doused with flame retardant.

It is estimated that 2.5 million hives are being trucked around this way every year to Washington for apples and cherries, Dakota for alfalfa and sunflowers, Michigan for blueberries…

Bees in crisis

But the troubles of bees extend well beyond highway crashes. In the United States, beekeepers are reporting annual bee losses of 30% and more and the number of colonies shrank from its 5.5 million hives peak in the 1950s to less then 2.5 million today. This is the result of a combination of habitat loss, inadequate diets, mite infestation and disease, loss of genetic diversity and pesticides.

In Europe, since 1994, neonicotinoid pesticides have been associated with Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) – where the insecticide confuses bees to the point where they abandon their hive. The same has been observed across the United States since 2006. UK studies link the pesticide to an 85% decline in queen production and confirm disruptions in the ability of bees to navigate and communicate. This is why the European Commission banned them in April 2013. Given that a worldwide ban would deprive Syngenta of 6.5% of its sales (source: Schroders Research), the science behind bees and pesticides is hotly debated and another culprit is pointed, the varroa mite, a parasite that has spread from Asia to the rest of the world and for which the impact of chemical treatment is showing mixed results – it is said that chemical treatment has helped the mite become more resistant at the expense of the bees.

Biodiversity decline and habitat loss are also having their toll. While farms located near natural habitats fare better, a study found that since the 1980’s there has been a 70% decline in key wildflowers. This means a lower diversity of plants from which bees can collect pollen. The genetically modified and neonicotinoid infected corn syrup they are fed by commercial beekeepers for their subsistence diet are also not helping.

The bee crisis is causing shockwaves well beyond environmental circles. New research by Schroders Investment Bank on “Bees and the Stockmarket” warns of impacts across industries including agrochemicals, food producers, retailers, beverages and the luxury sector. Meanwhile, the Obama Administration talks of a serious threat to food security and announced a federal strategy to protect honeybees, address habitat loss and biodiversity decline. $50 million has been appropriated across various agencies for research and to restore hospitable habitats for bees and other pollinators like the Monarch butterfly.

A Global Movement to Save Bees

Public authorities, the private sector and the public at large – all have a role to play. In 2010, the city of New York overturned a ban on beekeeping that had been in place since the late 1990s and “bee mania” has been spreading since with beehives being installed on skyscraper rooftops, community gardens and school backyards. Even the most  exclusive institutions like the Waldorf Astoria Restaurant have joined this movement – its has six beehives located near Central Park and serves the most prestigious honey in town. The private sector is also on board with organizations like the Cirque du Soleil in Montreal and the LVMH Group in Paris setting up hives at their headquarters and engaging in the protection and promotion of bees. But much of the leadership comes from individuals and associations around the world that are fighting unfriendly regulations and attitudes, overturning bee bans, installing hives and creating bee-friendly gardens with native wildflowers that benefit all pollinators. It may bee that in their consciousness, people everywhere are starting to realize that by protecting bees we are also protecting ourselves.

Maybee the bee still has a chance after all…

Bee Resources:

UNEP Report on Bees

White House Factsheet on Economic cost of Bee Decline and US Federal Strategy to Protect Honey Bees 

Bees and the Stock Market: Schroders Research Paper

Bees at the United Nations in Geneva

Nature Journal Study on Bee Addiction to Harmful Pesticides

European Commission Protecting Bees

Andrew Gough Blog with fascinating facts and stories about bees

Resource for Beekeepers

Health Benefits of Honey

Queen of the Sun Award Winning Documentary Film Review by Roger Ebert

Bridging Luxury and the Environment

by Margo Koniuszewski, author of the “Bridging luxury & the environment” project
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Angelina Jolie in the Louis Vuitton Campaign (Source credit)

English version of Article published in Forbes Poland

Ten years ago, while buying lipstick at the stand of a leading luxury cosmetics brand, I asked if I could bring back the empty packaging for reuse by the company. The surprised saleslady answered, “I am sorry Madam, we do not practice such things here”. Today, premium brands like Guerlain, encourage their customers to return product packaging (empty perfume bottle, etc.), which is then transferred to special centers for sorting, recycling and recovery.

Luxury and Sustainability

Before luxury brands began to be identified with large corporations – fashion houses that spend billions on marketing – they were associated with family values, cultural heritage, precise-craftsmanship and timelessness (jewelry and watches that are passed on from generation to generation). Today, we must add the ecological and social innovation necessary to ensure a sustainable future. Customers actively support this process by demanding more responsible behaviors from their favorite brands. The global emergence of social and environmental awareness represents the most important cultural transformation of the twenty-first century – to which the luxury sector must provide leadership if their brands are to retain their prestige – an essential element in the DNA of luxury brands.

A Luxury Sector with a French Flavor

Luxury Industry revenues reached €210 billion in 2013 with French brands accounting for 25% of sales. The LVMH Group continues to lead the sector with revenues of €29 billion in 2013. Given this scale, the behavior of the industry has a major impact and through its leadership it can become a catalyst for driving aspirations of more eco-conscious lifestyles.

In 2013, the LVMH Group (Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy) invested €17.3 million in environmental protection – including waste management, water recycling, soil and noise pollution reduction, and projects to support biodiversity. Investments in efficient buildings, internal training and the sponsorship of environmental initiatives are budgeted separately.

Supply chain monitoring, eco-design, energy efficient lighting, certification of business processes, ecosystems protection, materials recovery and sustainability audits are all integrated in the various brand strategies that are specific to each business sector: Wine & Spirits, Perfume & Cosmetics, Fashion & Leather Goods, Watches & Jewelry and Selective Retailing.

Without Nature there is No Business

Luxury brands are now building their core image around caring for society and the environment. Wanting to preserve their beauty and appeal, they must (as many already do) provide a persuasive narrative for their contribution to alleviate social and environmental concerns. Global warming, deforestation, resource scarcity, pollution of air, water and soil, endangered species and environmental degradation disturb the favorable conditions that have allowed the industry to develop and thrive. As LVMH Group CEO Bernard Arnault says, “LVMH owes a lot to nature”. And the business case for sustainability is made even more compelling because “green solutions” benefits extend beyond image building, they can also improve the bottom line through efficiency and cost reductions.

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In the production of Belvedere vodka, a brand of Polish descent, distillery Polmos Zyrardów has converted its power generation from oil to natural gas and improved its energy efficiency through a heat recovery system. The energy generated is now used in the production re-heating process. With these solutions, carbon emissions were reduced by 36 percent or 2 thousand tons, the equivalent to the consumption of 850 thousand liters of gasoline, like removing 900 cars from Polish roads. In 2012, LVMH launched a program to optimize energy consumption using LEDs in its boutiques, using technology from Philips Lighting amongst others – reducing the Louis Vuitton Maison power consumption by 50% since 1995. In addition to lower power bills, the shops have better possibilities in terms of “play of light” to showcase products.

Companies also benefit from recycling. LVMH created its CEDRE platform (Centre Environnemental de Déconditionnement et Recyclage Ecologique) to optimize the recovery and processing of waste generated in the production, distribution and recycling of its product packaging but also the waste from various events (exhibits, fashion shows, etc.). In 2013, it recovered around 1,600 tons of glass, paper, wood, metal and plastic.

The Hennessy Maison has been modernizing its vehicle fleet – more then 20 percent of its cars are now green (electric and hybrids). Charging stations have been installed at the factories and employees received eco-driving lessons, which helped reduce fuel consumption, accidents and maintenance costs. At Sephora, a fleet of electric trucks serves distribution centers located in French city centers, reducing costs and urban pollution.

Eco-marketing

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Veuve Clicquot Champagne casing made of potato starch and paper

The best strategy in terms of image and brand building in the luxury sector remains environmentally and socially responsible marketing. It is difficult to conceive a more compelling example for the imagination of wealthy eco-consumers then the fully biodegradable isothermal Veuve Clicquot champagne casing that is entirely made of potato starch and paper. Meanwhile, emotions-based cosmetics Maison Guerlain, engaged its brand in the protection of bees – the essential pollinators that are critical to healthy ecosystems. Through its Orchidarium research platform, Guerlain also supports the restoration of tropical forests – the natural habitat where orchids grow – passing along essential know-how to organizations that are involved in the collection of these flowers. Hennessy is also engaged in the protection of woodlands. The timber used for the production of cognac barrels comes from sustainably managed forests that are certified by FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) and PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification).

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Guerlain – Celebrating 160 years of Commitment to Bees

Promoting advances in science is also important for Belvedere. Since 2005, it has worked with Lodz University of Technology to develop research programs in biotechnology and to help attract the best graduates.

Luxury ethics

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Bvlgari: Certified Responsible Jewelry Council label

Human rights stewardship is also important. Especially given the growing awareness of the social costs associated with precious metal and stone mining in the Third World. Responsible jewelry manufacturers became particularly vigilant in this area for fear of being associated with “blood diamonds”. Since 2005, Bvlgari has obtained the Certified Responsible Jewelry Council (RJC) label, certifying the implementation of responsible ethical, social and environmental practices in its supply chain. Since 2012, Louis Vuitton is also RJC certified.

Louis Vuitton also developed stringent  environmental audits of its supply chain.  There is also the implementation of ISO14001 with environmental assessment for transporters and warehouses.

LVMH works to reduce environmental impacts by designing quality products that are long-lasting and easy to repair. The durability and longevity of luxury goods contrasts with the planned obsolescence that is incorporated in fast moving consumer products.

Given the development of modern science, technology, and an awakening global consciousness, we realize that we can (and must) avoid repeating the mistakes of the past. Luxury brands enjoy global recognition and prestige, and we aspire to be associated with them. Aspirations are a critical element. If we want a better life and for meaningful leadership to come from the luxury sector, we better pay attention to what we buy and invest ourselves in asking the right questions. This is best path towards setting a new standard of sustainability for the industry and beyond.