Carbon Pricing to promote Public Goods

Carbon Pricing for Public GoodsGeneva, January 25. By Adam Koniuszewski, GCSP Fellow

The Cost of Carbon Pollution

The enormous economic, social and environmental costs of climate change have been widely recognized since Nicholas Stern worked on quantifying them a decade ago. These costs however remain largely unaccounted for in the marketplace. This failure to apply the polluter pays principle distorts prices, encourages carbon pollution, and gives fossil fuels a competitive price advantage over cleaner alternatives.

Pricing Carbon

A number of nations, including Scandinavian countries, Switzerland and Italy, are trying to correct market signals by pricing carbon. In 2016, carbon pricing covered 13% of global emissions; a number that is expected to reach 50% of emissions by 2030. Carbon pricing, in the form of a tax or carbon trading, generated $50 billion in government revenues in 2015.

A “Framework Convention for Carbon Control” 

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The author suggests that carbon pricing experiences have produced valuable lessons for more governments to adopt it. In fact, there is now a compelling case for creating a “Framework Convention on Carbon Control” (FCCC) and an independent agency to oversee all aspects of carbon emissions and sequestration. Inspired by the successes of the “Framework Convention for Tobacco Control” (FCTC) in alleviating the smoking epidemic, the carbon control convention would be designed to fix market failures and insufficiencies that create de facto subsidies for carbon pollution.

The author also suggests that by ending fossil subsidies and implementing carbon pricing, nations can generate a revenue base that could be used to reduce corporate and personal income taxes. In addition to supporting national priorities like health and education, carbon finance can also fund the universal goals represented by 2030 sustainable development agenda.

For more see:  Winning the Tax Wars – Tax Competition and Cooperation 

Published by Wolters Kluwer, Jan 2018 (see chapter 9)

About “Winning the Tax Wars”

Tax Wars Book FlyerThe book is the outcome of the 2016 TaxCOOP conference at the World Bank in Washington DC on the impacts / solutions to international tax competition. It covers transfer pricing / profit allocation between tax jurisdictions, the need for compliance, investigations and protecting whistleblowers, wealth taxation in an increasingly unequal world, derivatives and hedge-funds, tax investigations, electronic commerce and crypto-currencies, and sin taxes. Its authors, editors and experts include: Brigitte Alepin, Blanca Moreno-Dodson, Louise Otis, Allison Christians, Vanessa Houlder, Lyne Latulippe, Patricio V. Marquez, Richard Murphy, Erika Siu, Eric M. Zolt and Adam Koniuszewski.

About TaxCOOP

TaxCOOP is an international independent and nonpartisan conference on tax competition and the weaknesses of the current tax system in the era of globalisation. Thanks to its various initiatives, TaxCOOP is now recognised as one of the most influential tax initiatives globally.

 

Was air pollution a factor when Portugal beat Poland?

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A research team at the IZA Economic Institute in Bonn (Germany) found that air pollution significantly impacts the performance of football players, even when measured pollution is below what the EU considers “safe level” thresholds. Above those concentrations, the measured decline in performance reached as much as 16%!

The World Health Organization reported that outdoor air pollution in cities for fine particles (called PM2.5 being smaller then 2.5 microns including dust, exhausts and coal combustion) was almost three times higher in Poland than in Portugal (28.7 vs. 10.8 ug/m3). Health effects include asthma and respiratory diseases such as lung cancer – children, the elderly and those with lung or heart disease are most at risk.

Outdoor air pollution causes 3.7 million premature deaths around the world according to Dr. Maria Neira, WHO Director for public health, environmental and social determinants of health.

In December 2015, the European Commission referred Poland to the EU Court of Justice for persistently high and dangerous levels of air pollution – mostly coming from household heating and road traffic. The Commission deemed that measures taken by the authorities were inadequate.

While we cannot attribute the victory of Portugal to pollution, it is clear that poor air quality affects more then just the quality of football games. Urgent action is needed!