Building Retrofits for Economic Stability and Energy Security

The 25th edition of the Krynica Economic Forum (Poland), the “little Davos of CEE”, took place a few weeks ago. After the opening with the Polish, Croatian and Macedonian Presidents on building a Resilient Europe, I took part in a panel organized by “The European Alliance of Companies for Energy Efficiency in Buildings” (EuroACE) on the economics and energy security aspects of renovating European buildings. A most timely topic as most buildings are energy colanders, and hence account for 40% of energy used in the EU – where more then half the energy is imported at a cost of €400+ billion.

Renovate Buildings Mr. Adrian JoyceEuroACE’s Adrian Joyce reminded us that over 75% of European buildings have a very low performance level, and are a major source of energy waste and economic instability given Europe’s reliance on foreign energy. Yamina Saheb, from the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, pointed to the economic opportunity for growth, job creation and side benefits like better air quality, health and productivity, key elements for prosperity and wellbeing in a sector that contributes 7% of EU GDP and 12 million direct jobs, adding that an ambitious renovation programme could create another 5 million jobs by 2030.

Oyvind Aarvig, from the Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation, stressed the need to renovate existing buildings given that 80% of the buildings in 2050 have already been built. He raised the challenge of urban sprawl and renovating is not enough; we must also increased building density intelligently to create sustainable communities where people want to live. Andre Delpont, from the Bordeaux-Euratlantique Public Planning Authority, concurred that energy efficiency coupled with densification in large-scale urban regeneration projects is key to attracting investors.

image001The city of Krakow, one of Europe’s most polluted cities because of coal burning, is opting for large-scale energy retrofits aiming to improve efficiency by 50% and co-financing its €500 million program through European Structural Funds. For Witold Smialek, Advisor to the Mayor of Krakow, the biggest obstacle is inability of owners and tenants to contribute their small contribution to the project and that is slowing down progress but in the end, he feels this can be resolved. Over 80% of Polish buildings have more than 25 years and are in need of renovation according to Oliver Rapf, Executive Director of the BPIE, meaning that the economic and social potential in renovating the building stock in the country is enormous. He commended the ambitious works in Krakow as an exemplary project that other Polish cities should replicate.

I commented that appropriate building technologies, including insulation, windows and lighting, can significantly reduce energy requirements and thereby costs, while boosting energy security in Poland and Europe. Replacing the 6,500 windows in New York’s Empire State building with energy efficient windows was one of the key elements that helped reduce energy consumption by 43% and saved $4.4 million annually with a payback of 3 years. The potential for the renovation of buildings, both in Poland and in the world is enormous.

Energy Utility Resistance

Attila Nyikos, from the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority, warned that reduced energy consumption meant lower revenues for energy utilities, as they must amortize massive fixed costs on a lower sales volume leading to higher energy rates for consumers, adding that occupants suffer while buildings undergo renovation works. He gave examples where owners refused free renovations because they wanted to avoid the inconvenience.


  • When renovating a district, densification is key to attracting investors
  • Selecting the right timing for an energy retrofit and implementing integrated solutions is crucial to improve ROI
  • Multiple benefits can be important drivers (air quality, etc.) an inspire ambitious projects
  • Mixing local and EU funds is an effective answer to lack of upfront financing
  • To release the significant potential tied up in the existing building stock in Poland (and in the EU!) t is time to act. We need to start the work now (with proper planning), without delay!

Another important consideration is the need to align the interests of all parties involved. It is obvious that energy utilities will not promote effective energy efficiency programs if their profits depend on their volume of sales. Similar dilemmas exist between owners of building and tenants – owners will invest in measures to reduce energy bills if they see a real benefit for themselves. Regulatory measures (decoupling) can overcome such problems and are increasingly being deployed in America where utilities share part of the savings they generate for their customers. This sounds like a good starting for policy makers.

The Universal Declaration of the Rights of Humankind

The report for a “Universal Declaration of the rights of humankind” was delivered last Friday by French ex-Minister of the Environment, Corinne Lepage and her team at the Elysée in Paris. The project originated from a request by the President to build on the human rights declarations and “laying the rights humankind, that is to say, the right of all people on Earth to live in a world whose future is not compromised by the irresponsibility of the present generation”, Francois Hollande, October 2014.


Stemming from the 1789 Declaration of Human Rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Paris 1948), and existing agreements and statements on development, the environment and future generations, the statement includes four principles:

  1. intergenerational solidarity
  2. dignity of humankind
  3. the continued existence of humankind,
  4. the non-discrimination on grounds of membership to a generation

“How can we guarantee to future generations the right to live in dignity and in a clean and safe environment?” said Valérie Cabanes, international lawyer specializing in human rights. Adding that “the consequences of our consumption patterns and production choices have become a threat to peace and human security”.

IMG_1616“Civil society from around the world must now mobilize and carry the message of the declaration so that it is widely shared and endorsed ahead of the December Climate Conference in Paris. This process is underway and the response so far is just amazing”, commented Corinne Lepage.


Next steps

  • special announcement during the Geneva Green and Inclusive Economy Conference on October 6
  • a broad consultation on the declaration
  • a side event on the subject will be held during the COP21

The objective being the adoption of a statement on the Declaration by the United Nations General Assembly in 2016. Given that this is a statement and not a binding document, it should be easier for member states to accept.

Project Team

The team that prepared the declaration and joined Corinne Lepage to deliver the report includes: Ahmed Alami, Marie-Odile Bertella-Geoffroy, Valérie Cabanes, Francois Damerval, Hubert Delzangles, Emilie Gaillard, Christian Huglo, Nicolas Imbert, Adam Koniuszewski, Jean-Marc Laveille, Catherine Le Bris, Bettina Laville and Mathieu Wemere.

IMG_1620Related Links

Elysée Release Link

Valérie Cabanes Article

GC France & Territoires Article

MetroNews Article (French)

Migrants, Refugees and the Promise of Diversity


In the current migration crisis, people are fleeing to escape disaster, violence, poverty and hunger in  numbers unknown since World War II. But their desperate search for a better life is not always met with understanding and compassion. Hungary has set up a four meter-high barbwire fence along its Serbian border, Donald Trump is calling Mexican immigrants dangerous criminals, and Australia has implemented the world’s harshest policy by turning back boats of asylum-seekers, or forcing them to detainee centers on distant Pacific Islands and making sure they will never enter the country.

In the face of such hostility, it is refreshing to find a book with a different narrative. One where a country that promotes multiculturalism and social cohesion can enjoy the immense benefits of a more diverse society, where migrants truly become agents of progress and development. This was certainly our experience when my family immigrated to Montreal (Canada) in the early 1970s to escape the communist regime in Poland. Today still, Montreal is one of the most multi-ethnic and multicultural cities in the world – a vibrant platform for culture, education and business innovation.

An Unlikely War Hero

diversity_0“The Promise of Diversity” by John Hartwell Williams and John Bond, tells the unlikely story of Jerzy Zubryzcki (1920-2009), a Polish intellectual turned cadet officer in the Polish Army when the Second World War broke. Forced to surrender to the German forces, Zubrzycki escaped imprisonment thanks to a Jewish shopkeeper who may have saved his life. He served with distinction in the Polish Army, the Polish underground resistance and with the British  forces. Selected to join a top secret elite team that was tasked by Churchill to “set Europe ablaze”, he underwent intense training in parachuting, explosives, sabotage, intelligence work and extreme survival skills. He even became an expert in the art of silent killing. In a “James Bond”-like adventure, he brought a captured V2 rocket from Poland to Britain, providing crucial intelligence to the allied forces.

Championing Diversity and Multiculturalism

Unable to return to Poland after the war, he became a refugee and decided to study sociology at the London School of Economics. He then joined the Australian National University where he became Professor of Sociology. Having experienced the horrors of Nazi occupation, he dedicated the rest of his life to promoting the integration of Australia’s increasing ethnic diversity. Australia, whose population was 7.4 million at the end of the war, received more then 2 million Europeans in the following two decades. Today still, it is home to one of the largest Greek communities outside Greece (particularly around Melbourne). Later came waves of refugees from Vietnam.

Thanks to his distinguished war record and contacts in the upper echelons of British society, he was able to access and influence the closed circles of Australian government, and successive Prime Ministers, helping them realize that the ethnic diversity is not a liability but an asset and that by enabling these values we enrich society as a whole. Through his influence he managed to “steer Australia towards multiculturalist settlement policies” (The Australian) for which he as been credited as the “father of Australian multiculturalism”.

The Stolen Generation Apology

Zubrzycki also helped in initiatives towards reconciling Australia’s Aboriginal population  with the wider community, initiatives which caught international attention in 2008 when Prime Minister Kevin Rudd led a national apology to the Aboriginal community. His moving address can be viewed here:

As Secretary of the Australian Institute of Polish Affairs, John Williams developed a friendship with Zubrzyzcki, which led him to start writing this biography. John Bond, an author who has helped several Australian public figures write their memoirs, completed the book and is now organizing a Polish translation and promoting the Zubrzycki story in Poland.

John Bond is no stranger to diversity and multiculturalism. Since 1969, he has been a member of “Initiatives of Change” in Australia, the Swiss-based organization that facilitated the German-French reconciliation process following the Second World War. John was elected Secretary of the “National Sorry Day Committee” whose work led to the apology from the Australian government. He was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for service to the Australian community.

The book provides a wonderful account of how Zubrzycki’s early life experience of being rescued by a Jewish family shaped his belief in the value of diversity and turned him into a  champion of multiculturalism.

If Zubrzycki’s approach to multiculturalism were more widely understood, many of the troubles with migration and asylum seekers could be avoided. But given the unfortunate turn that policies towards foreigners are taking around the world, now more then ever, the Zubrzycki story is worth spreading.

It is high-time to dust-off the historical heroes of the Polish diaspora whose expertise and achievements have been recognized and admired by the world

Related Links:

Ordering “The Promise of Diversity” LINK

Jerzy Zubrzycki Biography in Polish

Transcript of ABC Interview with Jerzy Zubrzycki

Jerzy Zubrzycki Obituary

The Illusion of Cheap Oil

oil-pricesThe media were all over the “dramatic” increase in oil prices that rocked the markets last week. But at $40 a barrel, even the biggest one-day increase in five years (10%) only is a meager $4. Not even a blip in the decline that has took crude prices from $146 in 2008 to the low forties (down $104 or 70%+). As expected by analysts, the downward pressure soon returned and oil finished the week only $2.66 or 6% up (image source: ValueWalk).

Cheap oil for car drivers?

With 60% of global oil consumption used for transport (70% in the USA), it makes sense to focus on what cheap oil mean for drivers. But a closer look shows that little of the crude oil fall has trickled down to the price at the pump. Only 20% in the UK, 18% in France and just slightly more in the USA, but still only 32%.

Taxes keep gasolines prices high

Taxes makeup the largest chunk of gasoline prices in most countries – 60% in the UK and France. Even in places with lower fuel taxes like the USA, Canada and Australia, the decline at the pump was only a fraction of the crude oil price drop (32% in the USA). Because of taxes, cheap oil only resulted in marginal savings for households and business.


There are exceptions. Some countries keep fuel prices artificially low. Iran and Saudi Arabia spend up to 9% of their GDP to subsidize fuel and offer fuel at 7 cents/liter. But with their state budgets under pressure from falling oil revenues, these policies are being phased out in Gulf countries but also in Indonesia, India and Venezuela. Drivers should get ready for hefty price hikes in the near future.

Major incentive for fuel efficiency

High prices at the pump provide individuals and industry with compelling reasons to improve fuel efficiency. In Geneva, in just a few years, the number of hybrid taxis (mostly Toyota Prius) has grown from close to nothing to 400 (out of 1,400 taxis in total). Most of them run on multiple shifts so they are on the road 24 hours a day, seven days a week. They are reliable, typically reaching 300-350 thousand km with little maintenance. But the main reason behind this phenomenal explosion is economic. With a consumption of 5 l/100km, taxi drivers claim that fuel savings pay for the car.

Similarly, Amsterdam Airport bought 160 Teslas because the economics of electric cars are so compelling. Even in the US where fuel is cheap ($0.76/liter), taxi companies are opting for electric cars boasting patriotism as they lower America’s reliance on foreign oil.

Fuel Efficiency Standards and other Incentives

Mandatory fuel efficiency standards are speeding up the revolution. France gives FEE-BATEs on new car purchases (rebates for clean cars of up to €10,000 financed by fees on dirty vehicles). Such schemes are boosting fuel efficiency of new cars in Europe by about 3% per year.

In the USA, fuel efficiency also improves (more slowly) despite a lack of regulations:


Now federal legislation will speed this up. Under CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) corporations must double the miles/gallon of their fleets (car and trucks) within a decade:


Private Sector Leadership

walmart concept semi truck

Truck of the Future by Walmart (2014), Peterbilt

But the private sector did not wait for regulators. 10 years after committing to double the fuel efficiency of its 6,500 strong truck fleet, Walmart has achieved a spectacular 84% improvement in fuel efficiency over its 2005 baseline.

Transportation companies are also  innovating in ways that go well beyond cost reductions. Thanks to UPSgermanyits e-bike service, UPS increased the number of daily pickups and deliveries because they can ride on pedestrian streets, zip through traffic and find parking anywhere – avoiding many of the frustrations of city driving. In addition to the cost improvements and the leap in productivity, their staff have never been happier.

Even the military, guilty for 1.9% of US oil consumption, has joined the efficiency race committing to get completely of oil by 2040, and pushing Detroit to supply electric vehicles with no compromise in terms of price, safety, comfort and performance.

Carmakers are speeding ahead

Just a few years ago Detroit and most manufacturers were dismissing electric cars as a distant illusion. But the landscape has changed dramatically, largely thanks to the Tesla revolution. “Hybridization, plug-in hybrids, or pure electric vehicles – this is a must for everyone… and the car company not able to keep up will disappear” said Rupert Stadler, Chief Executive of Audi earlier this year.

The end of Oil?

“The Stone Age did not end for lack of stone, and the Oil Age will end long before the world runs out of oil” declared Sheikh Zaki Yamani, former Saudi Arabian oil minister three decades ago. Ali al-Naimi, the country’s current oil minister, said that his kingdom will eventually not need fossil fuels and planned to become a “global power in solar and wind energy” and export electricity instead of fossil fuels. With a glut in oil supply, fuel efficiency that will shrink demand and Mr Naimi’s belief that “solar will me even more economic than fossil fuels”, the end of The Oil Age may be closer then we think.

This is the first in a series of articles on Cheap Oil and its implications.

Une stratégie maritime pour le 21ème siècle

photo-4Le premier ministre du Québec, Philippe Couillard, a dévoilé une stratégie maritime ambitieuse pour la province qui façonnera le transport et la logistique de l’expédition outre-Atlantique pour le Nord-Est de l’Amérique au 21e siècle. Montréal pourrait devenir la porte d’entrée maritime pour lier un marché américain (Nord-Est) de 135 millions de personnes d’avec la plus grande économie du monde, la zone Euro et ses $18,000 milliards. Cette annonce suit la nouvelle d’Octobre 2014 d’un accord de libre-échange (AECG) entre le Canada et l’Union Européenne qui donnera un accès préférentiel à ces marchés, possiblement dès 2016.

Les années de gloire

montrealsummer-026Dès 1860 et pendant un siècle, Montréal était la vraie métropole du Canada, principalement grâce à son rôle de plaque tournante du transport du pays avec son grand centre portuaire et ferroviaire. En 1923, Montréal était encore le plus grand port céréalier du monde. Certains des silos à grains datant de cette période sont encore visibles, mais Montréal se classe aujourd’hui 97ème à l’échelle mondiale en tonnage, avec seulement un quart du volume qui transite par New York (26ème).

Positionné pour l’avenir

La voie maritime du Saint-Laurent et des Grands Lacs représente le plus long système de navigation profonde du monde et s’étend sur 3,700 km, au cœur du continent nord-américain. Cette situation géographique favorable signifie que l’expédition par Montréal fournit le plus direct, rapide et donc aussi le moins cher. Ceci, combiné avec une logistique plus efficace – un temps de transit de fret de 24 heures à Montréal contre jusqu’à 5 jours par New York – donne à la “Belle Province” un avantage qui pourrait aider Montréal à retrouver sa position de plaque tournante maritime en Amérique du Nord.

Moins cher et plus propre

1l-maersk-mc-kinneyAvec les plus grands navires transportant jusqu’à 600,000 tonnes de marchandises, le transport maritime est le plus efficace. Il se compare favorablement au train et au transport routier au niveau des couts, mais aussi en termes de réduction de la pollution. Son empreinte carbone est 3 fois plus basse que par train et 33 fois plus basse que par camion!

La sécurité d’abord

Les risques du transport routier et la catastrophe ferroviaire de 2013 du Lac Mégantic qui a fait 42 victimes font de la sécurité une préoccupation majeure. Même si le transport maritime a un bon dossier de sécurité, la stratégie maritime reconnait l’importance des préparations aux catastrophes et prévoit le développement d’un centre d’expertise des écosystèmes marins aux iles de la Madeleine.

Science et innovation

Compte tenu des opportunités liées à la croissance des activités océaniques à l’échelle mondiale, il y a un besoin urgent de recherches, d’innovation et de partage des connaissances. La mise en place du Réseau Maritime du Québec agira comme un catalyseur pour mobiliser les structures existantes et améliorer les échanges, en particulier entre le Québec et la France (qui possède le deuxième plus grand territoire marin du monde).

Protection de la biodiversité et tourisme

Reconnaissant l’exceptionnelle beauté et la biodiversité de la voie maritime du Saint-Laurent, la stratégie appelle à la création de zones marines protégées équivalent à au moins 10% du territoire marin. Ceux-ci, ainsi que l’amélioration des infrastructures à différents points le long du fleuve visent à stimuler le tourisme de croisière qui est déjà en forte croissance et qui a attiré 350,000 personnes en 2014 et prévu d’atteindre 400,000 cette année.

Propulsant le Québec au 21e siècle

La stratégie maritime de $9 milliards de Philippe Couillard et les 30,000 emplois qu’elle espère créer est comparable en ampleur aux grands projets de la Baie James de Robert Bourassa des années 1970 qui ont coutés quelque 20 milliards de dollars plusieurs décennies a être complétés. Aujourd’hui, cet héritage de Bourassa donne à la Province une énergie bas-carbone et peu couteuse qui fait que les Québécois ont la plus faible empreinte carbone du pays (9,7 tonnes d’équivalent CO2 par habitant en 2012 contre une moyenne de 20,1 tonnes pour les Canadiens).

Fait intéressant, 43,5% des émissions de carbone au Québec proviennent du secteur des transports qui utilise l’essence pour alimenter des voitures et des camions peu efficaces. Compte tenu de son accès à une électricité propre et fiable, le Québec pourrait devenir un leader de l’électrification des transports pour les véhicules de tourisme. A son tour, la stratégie maritime pourrait permettre une réduction importance de l’expédition par la route avec de nouvelles réductions de carbone, tout en stimulant le commerce et la compétitivité de la province.

Un message pour ParisClimat2015

Réconcilier l’économie et l’environnement sur ​​la base de connaissances scientifiques solides pour la prospérité des Québécois au 21e siècle – un message urgent et inspirant que le Premier ministre Couillard et le Maire de Montréal Denis Coderre pourrons transmettre durant la Conférence sur le climat de Paris en Décembre. Cette aventure dure depuis déjà 40 ans dans la « Belle Province » et la stratégie maritime est son dernier chapitre.

A maritime strategy to propel Quebec in the 21st century

photo-4Quebec Prime Minister, Philippe Couillard, unveiled an ambitious and far-reaching maritime strategy for the province that will shape the transportation and logistics of cross-Atlantic shipping for North America in the 21st century. Montreal could become the preferred maritime gateway to link a Northeast American market of 135 million with the $18 trillion Eurozone, the world’s largest economy. This timely announcement follows the October 2014 news of a free trade agreement (CETA) between Canada and the Eurozone that will provide preferential market access as early as 2016.

Glory days

montrealsummer-026In the 1860s and for a century, Montreal was Canada’s true metropolis, largely thanks to its role as the country’s transportation hub with its major port and railway center. In 1923, Montreal was even the world’s largest cereal port. Some of the grain silos dating back to that period are still visible, but Montreal now ranks 97th globally for container tonnage, with only 1/4 of the volume that transits through New York (26th).

Positioned for the future

The St-Lawrence seaway and Great Lakes makeup the longest deep-boat navigation system in the world extending 3,700 km into the North American heartland. This favorable geographical situation means that shipping through Montreal provides the fastest, cheapest and most direct market access. This, combined with more efficient logistics – a 24 hour cargo transit time in Montreal versus up to 5 days through New York – gives the “Belle Province” a compelling advantage that could help Montreal regain its position as a leading maritime hub in North America.

Cheapest and cleanest

1l-maersk-mc-kinneyWith the largest vessels carrying up to 600,000 tons of cargo, maritime shipping is the most efficient form of transportation. It compares favorably to trains and trucks in terms of costs but also for pollution reduction. Its carbon footprint is 3 times lower then trains and 33 times lower then trucks!

Safety first

A poor safety record for road transport and the fresh memory of the 2013 unattended train with crude oil that derailed and exploded killing 42 people in Lac Mégantic makes security a major concern. While marine transport has a good safety record, the maritime strategy recognizes the importance disaster preparedness and will therefore develop a world-class marine ecosystem expertise center in îles de la Madeleine.

Science and innovation

Given the immense opportunities related to growth of oceanic activities globally, there is an urgent need for more marine research and knowledge sharing. The establishment of the Quebec Maritime Network will act as a catalyst to leverage the existing structures and improve exchanges science and technology, particularly between Quebec and France (a nation with a great expertise and interest in oceans given its control the world’s second largest marine territory).

Biodiversity protection and tourism

Recognizing the exceptional natural beauty and biodiversity of the St-Laurence seaway, the strategy also calls for the creation of marine protected zones equivalent to at least 10% of the marine territory. These, along with improved infrastructure at various points along the river aim to boost the already growing cruise tourism that attracted 350,000 people in 2014 and that is expected to reach 400,000 this year.

Propelling Quebec into the 21st Century

The $9 billion maritime strategy of Philippe Couillard and the 30,000 jobs it hopes to create across sectors is comparable in scale and ambition to the pharaonic James Bay hydroelectric plan of Robert Bourassa in the 1970’s that cost $20 billion and took decades to complete. Today, this Bourassa legacy provides Quebec with low cost and low carbon power and the lowest carbon footprint in the country (9.7 tons of CO2 equivalent per person in 2012 vs. a 20.1 ton average for Canadians).

Interestingly, 43.5% of carbon emissions in Quebec now come from the transportation sector that uses oil to fuel inefficient cars and trucks. Given its access to clean and reliable electricity, Quebec can become a global leader in the electrification of passenger vehicle transport. The maritime strategy in turn will allow a massive reduction in road shipping – with further carbon reductions – while boosting trade and the competitiveness of the Province.

A compelling message for ParisClimat2015

Reconciling the economy and the environment on the basis of sound scientific knowledge for the prosperity of Quebecers in the 21st century – a most urgent and inspirational message that Prime Minister Couillard and Montreal Mayor Denis Coderre can now deliver at the Paris Climate Conference in December. This is an adventure that is already 40 years in the making “dans la Belle Province”. The maritime strategy is its latest chapter. Time will tell if the Couillard legacy becomes as transformational and as electrifying as Bourassa’s.

Pope Francis’ Encyclical: a climate game changer?

Rarely has a papal announcement received so much interest and controversy even before its release. On June 18, the long-awaited environmental encyclical of Pope Francis – the highest form of papal teaching – will be released to the 5,000 Bishops of the Catholic Church with a message to 1.2 billion Catholics around the world.


This promises to be of great significance for several reasons:

1) Part of a long process at the Vatican

While the environmental focus of the encyclical was inspired by the 2014 papal visit to Tacloban, a city in the Philippines devastated by the Haiyan hurricane, the interest of the Vatican for environmental matters started much earlier. In 2002 already, John Paul II released his “Declaration on Environmental Ethics”, raising concerns about the degradation of natural resources and the pollution of water, land and air. Pope Benedict in turn, credited for being the first “Green Pope”, said that: “respect for humans and for nature are one and the same”. He installed solar panels and turned the Vatican into the first carbon neutral-state. So the interest of Pope Francis results from a 15-year period of growing interest for the relationship between humanity and nature during which the message of the Vatican was developed and refined.

2) A holistic and universal message

The key points of the encyclical will extend beyond the narrowly defined “environmental sphere” to emphasize harmony with God, with nature and with other human beings. By addressing questions of poverty, inequality and hunger, in a world of plenty where one-third of the food goes to waste while 800 million people suffer from chronic hunger, Pope Francis aims to replace apathy and indifference with global solidarity. In this manner, he can reframe the climate science debate into a moral and ethical imperative that is relevant to all.

By bridging science and religion, Pope Francis can provide a universal and non-denominational message that resonates with teachings across faiths. Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, all agree on the moral need for humans to act as stewards and protectors of the Earth and to care for the most vulnerable.

3) Strategic timing for the message

The June 18 release will allow Pope Francis several opportunities to address key audiences including President Obama, the US Congress and the UN General Assembly during the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals that will run until 2030 – all during the month of September, sufficiently ahead of the December Climate Summit in Paris to mobilize the public and world leaders ahead of the conference.

4) A unique personality to overcome the North-South divide

Ever since the Rio 1992 Earth Summit, there has been a divide between developed countries, largely responsible for the bulk of carbon pollution, and Global South countries, the frontline victims of climate change impacts. This is why the move by the leading economies to push the “green economy agenda” onto poor nations has been received with great suspicion by developing countries that see this as another attempt at economic imperialism at their expense. Pope Francis, who selected his name after St Francis of Assisi, a man of peace and poverty, is largely perceived as the Pope of the Global South. No one is better positioned to defend the interests of developing nations and ensuring they do not end up on the short-end of any climate agreement. Only Pope Francis has the moral authority to bridge this great divide and allow a historic reconciliation capable of aligning all interests for the benefit of humanity and future generations.